RICHARD D. DENSMORE

Pipe Organ Artists and Recordings
on the Edison Label

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(This Article was originally published by the Association for Recorded Sound Collections: ARSC Journal, Volume 32, No. 1, Spring 2001, pages 28-43. Large segments of this article were re-published in The Grand Ophicleide: Journal of The Atlantic City Convention Hall Organ Society, Inc., Issue 15, Spring 2002, pages 9-11.)

Pipe organ enthusiasts have long been an active component of the record buying public. Among early attempts to meet this interest was the Phonograph Division of Thomas A. Edison, Inc. (hereafter the Edison Company), which was run almost at the level of micro-management by Thomas A. Edison, the original inventor of the phonograph. This article documents the history of the organ records issued by the Edison Company and the organists who became Edison artists, and updates (with additional information and corrections) an earlier article written by Dennis E. Ferrara, published in Theatre Organ1


      In 1877 Edison invented the first phonograph, which etched sound waves into a grooved cylinder wrapped in tin foil. Edison immediately foresaw many commercial possibilities for this recording device, which he would later proclaim to be his favorite invention.2 But it was a full ten years before he began marketing a phonograph, as his time was spent on other projects, including the electric light bulb. Edison's primary interest in the phonograph was understandably with technical issues, and he was a proponent of cylinders as compared to discs, because of the uniform groove speed of cylinders. Edison also preferred the vertical (hill and dale) method of cutting the grooves as opposed to the lateral method used by Victor and most other companies. With the vertical method grooves were narrower and could be spaced more closely together, permitting longer recordings on a given surface area.

       By 1910 cylinders were losing the format battle to discs. (Columbia would drop cylinders completely in 1912). Behind Mr. Edison's back, some of his engineers began developing a disc machine. When they showed him an early prototype, Edison quickly took leadership of the project and spent the next two and a half years and three million dollars3 developing the Edison Diamond Disc phonograph. This machine, introduced in late 1912, played 10 inch diameter, quarter inch thick, vertical cut discs using a reproducer with a diamond stylus connected by a woven silk cord to a diaphragm composed of 40 thin sheets of rice paper laminated together. The disc records were composed of a wood flour core (later china clay) coated with multiple layers of a condensite varnish (similar to bakelite). Except for a propensity for edge chipping and occasional lamination cracks, the records were almost indestructible. Edison disc records and phonographs were not compatible with other manufacturers' products, a fact which hampered the company's ability to compete. In terms of the quality of sound reproduction, however, the Edison Re-creations (as Edison for a time named his disc records) were superior to the discs of other manufacturers, as the company demonstrated through a series of public tone tests.4

       All recording at that time was by the acoustical method, where singers or instrumentalists stood before a recording horn, which focused their sound waves to a recording diaphragm, connected to a stylus which cut the master wax disc. In 1925, most of Edison's competitors began using microphones to record electrically, but Edison remained faithful to the acoustical method he had pioneered and developed to its limits. Finally, in 1927, under pressure from his recording staff, Edison reluctantly allowed the company to record and issue electrical Diamond Discs.5 In their last year of business, the Edison company also offered electrical "needle-cut" lateral records, in an attempt to offer discs that were compatible with their competitors' machines. These last Diamond Discs and needle-cut records are today considered by collectors to be of excellent quality. Sadly, Edison's market had sunk badly because of fierce competition and the advent of radio, therefore Edison disc records from 1927-1929 are much rarer than their earlier acoustical counterparts.

       The Diamond Disc phonograph was offered in a variety of models from late 1912 to 1927, and the records were sold until October 1929, when the company closed its doors, just days before the stock market crash.

       Edison never forgot his faithful cylinder customers. He continued offering cylinder machines and records all the years the company was in business. Blue amberol cylinders, offered from 1912-1929, were, like the Diamond Discs, recorded vertically and composed of durable materials. Starting in 1915,6 most blue amberol cylinders were dubbed from Diamond Discs, an economic move that caused a noticeable decrease in sound quality and volume when compared to earlier cylinders. Dubbing involved horn to horn re-recording. A number of the Edison organ records were dubbed onto blue amberols.

The Artists and Their Recorded Music

       In 1921 the Edison Company made its first, unfortunately unsuccessful attempt at recording pipe organ music. Earlier records had been issued by the company with "organ" accompaniment, but in most of those cases reed organs had been used. Thomas Edison contacted his personal friend, Bethlehem Steel president Charles Schwab,7 who on Aug. 31, 1921 allowed a recording session to take place on the organ at "Riverside," his huge French chateau-styled mansion on New York's Riverside Drive. Schwab, as well known for his stock speculations as for his expertise in the steel industry, was once described by Edison as "the master hustler." Archer Gibson, personal organist to Charles Schwab, was the organist.8

       At the recording session for Edison, Archer Gibson performed four selections. Edison rejected all four recordings, probably because of technical problems with the recording quality. None of these recordings were released. Gibson would have to wait until the 1930's to become a recording artist, with the Victor Co.9 See the appendix to this article for a list of the pieces Gibson recorded for Edison.

       Archer Gibson was born in 187510 in Baltimore and graduated from the Peabody Conservatory.11 He was a church organist and choirmaster, a composer, teacher, and served as "personal organist" to a number of New York City's elite: Mrs. Henry Clay Frick (wife of one of America's leading industrialists and financiers, who with Schwab helped form U. S. Steel),12 William D. Sloane (prominent floor-covering merchant and renowned philanthropist),13 Andrew Carnegie (American steel industry leader from 1873-1901, one of the first "captains of industry" and a great philanthropist),14 John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and Jr. (the father founded Standard Oil,15 the son directed his father's philanthropic interests),16 and Schwab, among others. This was just before the days of radio and quite a number of wealthy families had installed pipe organs in their homes. Gibson concertized frequently in this circle. His later career included a series of radio broadcasts (starting in 1932) of organ music aired on the NBC radio network. These too were performed from the organ in the Schwab mansion. In 1937 he played a concert of classical favorites at the funeral of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. During his career Gibson composed a number of hymns, cantatas, and one opera, "Yzdra." He died in 1952.17

       Frederick Kinsley became the first and most prolific recording artist of the organists to be issued on the Edison label. Born in 188618 to a musical family in New Haven, Connecticut, Kinsley began piano study at age 6 and was considered a prodigy. Kinsley earned the following academic credentials: he held a degree from the Yale School of Music; he was a licentiate of Trinity College, London, and he studied at King's College, London and with Charles Marie Widor in Paris. His first professional job was as organist and choir master at St. Paul's Church in New Haven. After serving for 18 months in the U.S. Army in World War I, he returned to find his church position filled, and moved to New York and the theatre circuit. He became chief organist at New York's immense Hippodrome Theatre in 1921, playing the organ with the orchestra, giving recitals during intermissions, and helping to produce shows.19 Later, with the advent of talking pictures, Kinsley returned to church work and also taught music in the public schools. From 1940 to 1946 he served as organist at New York City's interdenominational Riverside Church, immediately preceding the famous Virgil Fox in that capacity.20 In 1949 Kinsley served as the first Dean of the Worcester (Mass.) Chapter of the American Guild of Organists.21 From 1946 until shortly before his death in 1960 at the age of 73, Kinsley was organist at Wesley Methodist Church in Worcester, Massachusetts.22

       On June 14, 1924 Frederick Kinsley recorded for the first time for Edison, performing four pieces: "Prelude in C Sharp Minor, Op. 3" (Rachmaninoff), "Liebestraum" (Liszt), "The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise" (Seitz), and "Poor Butterfly" (Hubbell).23 This first session took place at the Hippodrome Theatre, using the theatre's three manual, seven rank organ that had recently been enlarged from two manuals and five ranks by the instrument's builder, Midmer-Losh, Inc.24 All four pieces recorded at this session were accepted and released by the Edison company. However, the Hippodrome was found to be unsatisfactory as a recording venue, probably because of scheduling constraints and the fact that the organ was buried under the stage.25 Subsequent recording sessions by Kinsley in January and June of 1925 utilized two different Midmer-Losh theatre organs erected in the Midmer-Losh factory located in the Long Island town of Merrick.26 Midmer-Losh was a very reputable organ builder, counting among its installations numerous fine church organs as well as theatre organs. In the early 1930's Midmer-Losh would become famous as the builder of the world's largest pipe organ, installed in Atlantic City's Convention Hall. Six pieces were recorded over two days in January 1925, and 24 pieces were recorded over six dates in June 1925. The success of these recordings prompted A. L. Walsh, a manager of Edison recording operations, to write the following memo to Thomas A. Edison, stressing the demand for organ records and requesting that an organ be installed in Edison's Columbia St. (West Orange, NJ) recording studio:27

June 29, 1926.

Mr. Thomas A. Edison:

SUBJECT: We need Organ Records

I am receiving a tremendous number of requests for Organ Records of popular selections to be sold at $1.00. This demand has been so persistent and widespread that I am firmly convinced that I could do nothing more important to our record business than to issue such records, particularly as Victor is making a big hit with such records at 75 cents.

I am informed by Walter Miller that you told him to cut out Organ Records for this year. I should like to ask you to reconsider this matter.

First, bear in mind that I am never going to let my enthusiasm carry me away to a point where I ask for extravagant expenditures.

We can have a splendid Organ put in the Columbia Street Studio for thirty days at a cost of $1,000. If it works out alright we can buy this Organ for $6,500, and have the $1,000 installation charge credited.

Now that is a lot of money, but it is really only the cost of twenty double-faced Fox Trot Records, and in about a year and a half, at most, we could issue that many popular Organ Records and give the Trade what they want and what they can sell.

I don't care about making up a lot of Organ Records in one month because I want to make, on the Organ, red hot selections while they are popular, and I see no way to do this unless we have an Organ at our disposal at all times.

We can make these records so that they will not blast, when played with the Dance Reproducer, if we just eliminate that very heavy bass pipe which really does not add anything to the performance but only clutters it up.

Furthermore, think of the use I can make of this Organ for Long Playing Records. Nothing is more popular over the Radio than Organ-recitals, and we can do some slick work in this respect for Organ enthusiasts.

A. L. Walsh

ALW:MM

       As a result of this request, a "specially built" three manual, seven rank Midmer-Losh organ was installed in the Edison Columbia Street recording studio in the first week of November 1926.28 This organ was a conservatively voiced theatre organ that could also be used to play "classical" and church music. Starting in December 1926 through March 1928 Kinsley recorded for Edison on a more frequent and regular basis. Below is the text from an Edison Disc Record Release Weekly bulletin promoting Kinsley's organ records to the Edison dealers:29

Just a Word or Two about Organ Records

        Until recent years, the pipe organ was used chiefly in churches and large auditoriums, and was a more or less "classical" instrument. Since its adoption by the movie theatres, however, it has found a new place in public favor, and has become one of the most popular of musical instruments. The nation's annual bill for organ music is said to be now many millions of dollars.

        The universal appeal of the organ is no doubt due to its great range and versatility, which enable it to give utterance to almost every conceivable human mood and emotion. This, incidentally, is the secret of its success in keeping up with the rapidly shifting scenes of the movies; and it is also the reason that organ records of popular music, though comparatively new in the phonograph world, take high rank today among the best sellers.

        The musical variety of the organ, ranging from deep bass growls to high treble notes fine as cobwebs, with swift changes in tempo and volume, is not the easiest thing for phonograph recording and reproduction. Not all companies have dared to try it; and some who have tried it, though using great organs and master organists, are yet able to produce only a fair imitation of organ music, scarcely distinguishable from orchestra records, lacking the overtones that give life to music, and marred by metallic twang and clatter.

        Here is a great opportunity for the Edison Dealer. For the EDISON, faithfully recording always just what it hears, reproduces the true organ voice in all its fullness and variety. Make this comparison for your customers: play an Edison organ record with the diamond; then play the same selection on a needle record, and let your customer judge. If he knows how a real organ sounds, he won't have to look at the record label, nor use his imagination, to tell which record reproduces the organ, and which one imitates it.

        Edison organ records are made in our studio, on our own specially built Midmer-Losh Pipe Organ, played by Frederick Kinsley, organist of New York's famous "big" theatre, the "Hippodrome." These records not only sell themselves: they sell Edison Phonographs as well. Use them generously, and see how your list of proud owners will grow.

Frederick Kinsley at the organ console at the Hippodrome in 1924.

(Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site.)

       See the appendix for a complete chronological listing of the pieces recorded by Kinsley for the Edison label. Note that a few of the later sessions were recorded at the Hippodrome Theatre and at the Sanford Theatre in Maplewood, New Jersey.

       Dr. Rollo F. Maitland recorded for the Edison Diamond Disc label in 1927 and 1928.30 All of his recordings for Edison were done on the Midmer-Losh organ in the Edison Columbia Street recording studio. Dr. Maitland was prominent both as a classical organist and as a theatre organist.31 Born in 1884 near Williamsport, PA, Maitland received his first musical instruction from his father. His only organ teacher was Dr. David D. Wood, an early proponent of Bach's organ music in America. Maitland was also a professional violinist. He earned fellow and choirmaster certificates from the American Guild of Organists, and headed the organ department at the Philadelphia Musical Academy, where he had earned his doctorate. In his career he performed major recitals and radio broadcasts on some of the country's largest and most famous instruments, including the Wanamaker organ in Philadelphia, and the Midmer-Losh Atlantic City Convention Hall organ. He composed numerous organ and piano pieces, as well as anthems and songs. He died in 1953 at the age of 68. See the appendix for a complete chronological listing of the pieces recorded by Rollo Maitland for the Edison label.

       One of the most colorful personalities to record on the organ for Edison was Mr. C. Sharpe Minor. Charles Minor was by all accounts a great showman and one of the better known theatre organists in the 1920's. He cleverly borrowed his mother's maiden name (Sharpe) to create an eye-catching name for theatre marquees.32 Mr. Minor reportedly was able to play with lightening speed, even when in an inebriated state.33 In 1925 Minor entered into a business affiliation with the Link Piano Company of Binghamton, NY, manufacturers of orchestral pipe organs. They began offering a series of Link-C. Sharpe Minor Unit Organs for theatres.34 Minor toured extensively with a "portable" Link 3 manual, 8 rank organ. In 1929 he opened a studio in Los Angeles where he gave lessons and broadcast organ recitals using a three manual Robert Morton organ. As late as the 1950's he issued a long playing record of electronic organ music, When Day is Done - Twilight Melodies, played by C. Sharpe-Minor, "the Philosopher of the Organ," distributed by RCA.

       C. Sharpe Minor recorded only two numbers for Edison, in April 192735 at the Sanford Theatre in Maplewood, New Jersey.36 A 2 manual, 7 rank Wurlitzer organ was used. Earlier that same month and also in February 1927 Frederick Kinsley had recorded for Edison at that same theatre. See the appendix for a listing of C. Sharpe Minor's Edison recordings.

       On April 29, 1928 organist/composer Walter Cleveland Simon recorded three sides for Edison, none of which were released.37 Simon was born in Lexington, KY on Oct. 27, 1884, and died in New York City on March 5, 1958.38 He had been the first composer to write a score for an American film, apparently either 1911's Arrah-Na-Pogue,39 or 1915's Midnight at Maxim's.40 He was an organist for all the major theatre circuits, including Pantages, Keith, and Orpheum. See the appendix for a listing of Walter Cleveland Simon's Edison recordings.

       From July through December 1928, Henrietta Kamern41 recorded on seven different occasions for the Edison company, on the Möller Organ at Loew's Rio Theatre in New York City.42 Simultaneous recordings (electrical) on both Diamond Disc and needle cut were apparently made of a few of the selections.43 See the appendix for a list of the Diamond Disc recordings of Henrietta Kamern. The author could not locate biographical information on Ms. Kamern.

(Source: Dethleson, Ronald. Edison Blue Amberol Recordings, 1915-1929. Woodland Hills, CA: Mulholland Press, Inc. 1999, p. 68)

       In March and April 1929 John Gart recorded four sides for the Edison label.44 Gart was born in Poland in 1905,45 and at age 7 was accepted at the Imperial Conservatory of Music in Moscow, where he studied the piano and music theory. At age 12 he toured Europe as accompanist to a violinist and an opera singer. In 1922 he moved to the U.S. and studied organ with Dr. Clarence Dickerson, and theatre organ with Herbert Sisson. Gart became a theatre organist and also directed a full theatre orchestra at Loew's Valencia Theatre in New York. In 1931 he learned to play the accordion, and from the 1930's into the 1960's worked steadily in theatres, radio and television playing the organ (both pipe and electronic) and accordion. In the 1950's he issued a number of recordings on Conn electronic organs on the Kapp label.46 In two sessions in March and April 1929, Gart recorded four pieces on the Robert-Morton "Wonder Morton" at the Valencia Theatre.47 These were released only as a needle cut lateral disc and dubbed blue amberol cylinders. See the appendix for a list of these recordings.

John Gart in 1930.

(Source: Flickr: Ransäters Dragspelsexpo's photostream. 11 November 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/dragspelsexpo/4221096927/)

       Philadelphia organist Clarence Kohlmann recorded one piece, on two sides, for Edison in September 1929,48 The Storm, a descriptive specialty composed by Shaw, and transcribed by Kohlmann. At the same session he also accompanied bass soloist Donald Chalmers on two pieces. None of these were released. Clarence Kohlmann was born in Philadelphia, PA on Sept. 24, 1891, and died in the same city on December 13, 1944.49 He was the organist at the Ocean Grove Auditorium. See the appendix for a listing of Clarence Kohlmann's recording session.

       The final organist to record for Edison, just a few weeks before the company closed shop, was Warren Yates.50 Mr. Yates, a local New Jersey theatre organist,51 was born in 188852 in Brooklyn, New York. His mother provided his initial music lessons. He became a church organist at the age of 16 in Brooklyn. By 1920 he was a theatre organist and was named chief organist at the Branford Theater, in Newark, New Jersey. He also performed at theatres in Paterson, NJ and in Washington, DC. He performed on the air over radio station WODA in Paterson. In later years he served as organist to a number of area churches, and for 25 years was organist at a funeral home in Montclair, NJ. Warren Yates died in Dec. 1967. See the appendix for a listing of the two pieces recorded by Mr. Yates for Edison. These pieces were recorded on the Wurlitzer organ at the Fabian Theatre in Paterson, NJ,53 in two sessions, on September 26 and October 3, 1929. The Edison company ceased all recording operations on October 19th, and Mr. Yates' record, though manufactured, was not officially released before the company went out of business.54 A few copies of the record exist in private collections, however.

(Source: "W. M Yates, Organist, Dies at 79." Verona-Cedar Grove Times, December 28, 1967.)

       Mention must be made of Ernest L. Stevens. Primarily as a pianist, Stevens was definitely one of the busiest artists on the Edison label in the 1920's.55 A native of New Jersey, born in 1894, Ernest L. Stevens obtained basic musical training from Howard Case, and studied the organ with Mark Andrews in Montclair, New Jersey. Stevens was hired as Edison's personal pianist-arranger, playing for Mr. Edison songs that came in from all over the world so that Mr. Edison could select "appropriate" material for his recording artists. Stevens recorded extensively for Edison as a solo pianist, as a member of his own trio, and as leader of his own dance orchestra.56 He made piano rolls for various companies, and taught piano and organ privately starting in 1929. In a 1974 interview,57 Stevens states that he once recorded on the organ for Edison, apparently a test pressing for the experimental 12-inch long-playing discs that were in development starting in 1924. A study of the artist card for Ernest L. Stevens reveals only one 12-inch recording: "Waltz Medley," recorded Feb. 6, 1924, on the piano. According to Frow58, Stevens actually recorded at the organ in 1928. The company was then trying to develop the Ediscope, a new product that would unite sound (music and commentary on long-playing records) with still pictures. The product seemed ideally suited to the children's entertainment market, so experimental recordings were done of the Cinderella story with Stevens providing background music/accompaniment at the Edison studio organ. These recordings were not released and the Ediscope system was never marketed.

       Thomas A. Edison was a technical genius with admittedly conservative, provincial and, at times, eccentric musical tastes. Nevertheless, he produced thirty-four organ Diamond Disc records that, almost eighty years later, are still very playable and highly collectible. These records give us an excellent idea of what the organs and organists of the time sounded like, and the kind of music that was popular on the "King of Instruments" during the "Roaring Twenties".

Partially dismantled Midmer-Losh organ in Edison recording studio, circa 1930.

(Source: Wile, Raymond R., compiler; Dethleson, Ronald, editor. Edison Disc Artists & Records 1910-1929. Brooklyn, NY: APM Press, 1985, p. [147])

       Acknowledgements - the author gratefully acknowledges assistance from the following individuals who provided information: Mr. Raymond R. Wile, author and researcher on Edison Diamond Discs, who graciously sent photocopies of artist cards and other documents that he had copied from the Edison National Historic Site archives, and who shared his personal knowledge and information on Edison records and artists; Mr. Gerald Fabris and Mr. Douglas Tarr, Edison National Historic Site, West Orange, NJ, who provided copies of artist cards and other documents; and Mr. Ron Dethlefson, who via email answered several questions related to Edison records.

Richard Densmore is a librarian at Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. He holds a Masters in Library Science from Case Western Reserve University, and an MBA from Baldwin-Wallace College. He is an organist and collector of Edison Diamond Disc records, and lives with his wife and three sons in Strongsville, Ohio.

1) Ferrara, Dennis E. "The Complete Theatre Organ Recordings on Edison." Theatre Organ 35.4 (July-August 1993): 20-23.
   Originally published in 1986 as: "The Complete Theatre Organ ... On Edison," by Dennis E. Ferrara, New Amberola Graphic 15:1 (Issue No. 57), (Summer 1986): 4-5.

2) Harvith, John and Susan Edwards Harvith. Introduction. Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph: A Century in Retrospect. Ed. Harvith and Harvith. Contributions to the Study of Music and Dance 11. New York: Greenwood Pr., 1987. 1-2.
    Edison's projected commercial possibilities included letter writing, dictation, books, educational purposes, music, family record, musical boxes, toys, etc., clocks, advertising, famous speeches, and perfection of the telephone.

3) Frow, George L. The Edison Disc Phonographs and the Diamond Discs: a history with illustrations. With new contributions by Robert W. Baumbach. Los Angeles, CA: Mulholland Press, 2001. 45.

4) Thompson, Emily. "Machines, Music, and the Quest for Fidelity: Marketing the Edison Phonograph in America, 1877-1925." Musical Quarterly 79 (1995): 131-171.
    Offered starting in 1915, the tone tests paired Edison recording artists with their "re-creations" on stage before live audiences. Thousands of performances were given across the country up until 1925, and innumerable newspaper accounts attested to the surprising fidelity of the Edison Diamond Discs.

5) Frow, 73.

6) Frow, 232.

7) Creating An Industrial Giant Charles Schwab Combined Skill, Nerve And Luck To Propel Bethlehem Steel. 11 Nov. 2013. http://articles.mcall.com/1999-03-21/news/3233760_1_bethlehem-steel-steelworks-curtis-hank-barnette

8) "Gibson, Archer, organ solos." (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

9) Wile, Raymond R. "Edison organ recordings." E-mail to the author along with handwritten notes. 23 Sept. 1999.

10) "Gibson, Archer." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Rev. by Nicolas Slonimsky. 7th ed. New York: Shirmer Books, 1984.

11) "Archer Gibson is Dead at 75; Organist, Composer of Hymns." New York Herald Tribune 16 Jul. 1952.

12) Douglass, Elisha P. "Frick." The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 240-241.

13) "Sloane, William D." The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Vol. 30. New York: James T. White & Company, 1943. 16-17.

14) Hacker, Louis M. "Carnegie." The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 375-379.

15) Jones, Peter d'A. Rockefeller." The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 9. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 234-236.

16) Douglass, Elisha P. "Rockefeller, Jr." The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 9. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973. 236-237.

17) "Archer Gibson is Dead at 75."

18) Klos, Lloyd E. "Frederick Kinsley - Hall of Famer." Theatre Organ (October-November 1977): 17-19.

19) "Nunc Dimittis - Frederick Kinsley." The Diapason 1 June 1960: 18.

20) "Fox, Virgil." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Rev. by Nicolas Slonimsky. 8th ed. New York: Shirmer Books, 1991.

21) Worcester Chapter of the American Guild of Organists-History. 1949-1999 - A half century of services to the community. A Short History of the Worcester Chapter. 22 Sept. 1999. http://www.bershad.com/ago/worcester/history.html

22) Klos, Lloyd E. "Frederick Kinsley," 19.

23) "Frederick Kinsley" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

24) Junchen, David L. "Midmer-Losh, Incorporated Pipe Organs." Encyclopedia of the American Theatre Organ. Vol. 1. Pasedena, CA: Showcase Pubs., 1985. 315-344.

25) Klos, Lloyd E. "Frederick Kinsley," 17.

26) Losh, George and others. The History of Midmer Losh Organ Company. Ts. c1974. Westminster Choir College of Rider University, Talbott Library-Organ Hist. Soc., Princeton, NJ. 9-10.
    George Losh in this History gives incorrect dates of 1928 for the first recording sessions at the factory and "the following year" for the installation of a Midmer-Losh organ in the Edison recording studio.

27) Walsh, A. L. "SUBJECT: We need Organ Records." Memo to Mr. Thomas A. Edison. 29 June 1926. West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
    The file copy of this memo bears in Thomas A. Edison's handwriting: OK, TAE.

28) Warner, Geo. J. "Columbia Street Studio Report for the Week Ending November 6, 1926." Memo to Mr. Edison. 6 Nov. 1926. West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

29) "New Edison Disc Record Releases - Weekly Bulletin No. 4." Edison Disc Artists & Records: 1910-1929. Comp. Raymond R. Wile, ed.  Ronald Dethlefson. 2nd ed. Brooklyn: APM Press, 1990. 90F.

30) "Rollo Maitland" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

31) "Dr. Rollo F. Maitland Dies in Philadelphia." The Diapason 1 May 1953: 1.

32) The American Theatre Organ Society Organist Profile - C. Sharpe Minor. 11 Nov. 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20000817002217/http:/www.atos.org/artists/minor.htm

33) Miller, Allen. "Re: Organists who drink." 27 Jan. 1995. Online posting; Pipe Organs and Related Topics. 11 Nov. 2013. https://list.uiowa.edu/scripts/wa.exe?A2=ind9501D&L=PIPORG-L&F=&S=&P=120083/

34) Junchen, David L. "Link Piano Co." Encyclopedia of the American Theatre Organ. Vol. 1. Pasedena, CA: Showcase Pubs., 1985. 265-283.

35) "C. Sharpe Minor" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Douglas Tarr.

36) Ferrara, 23.

37) Zwarg, Christian, comp. EDISON (Diamond Discs) [EXCEL file] (updated 10/2/2003) The Truesound Online Discography Project: Documenting the Acoustical Era (1888 - 1930) "These listings are taken from the original Edison recording ledgers, courtesy ENHS and Mike Loughlin." http://www.truesoundtransfers.de/disco.htm

38) "Simon, Walter Cleveland." The ASCAP Biographical Dictionary. New York: Bowker, fourth edition, 1980.

39) Simon.

40) Farley, Damien. Harms Hall. Englewood, NJ. Cinema Treasures. 19 April 2006. http://cinematreasures.org/theater/7767/

41) "Kamern, Henrietta" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

42) Junchen, David L. "M. P. Moller, Inc." Encyclopedia of the American Theatre Organ. Vol. 1. Pasedena, CA: Showcase Pubs., 1985. 413.

43) Frontier Computing - Audio Treasures. 11 Nov. 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/19980611225632/http:/www.frontiercomputing.on.ca/audio44.html
    This web page mentions an Edison Needle Type recording: "Laugh, Clown Laugh," performed by Henrietta Kamern, recorded electrically in 1928 on the Möller Pipe Organ at Loew's Rio Theatre, NYC.

44) "Gart, John" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.

45) Klos, Lloyd E. "John Gart." Theatre Organ (April-May 1977): 10-14.

46) John Gart. 11 Nov. 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20020110031226/http:/home.earthlink.net/~spaceagepop/gart.htm

47) Klos, Lloyd E. "John Gart," 10.

48) Zwarg.

49) "Kohlmann, Clarence." The ASCAP Biographical Dictionary. New York: Bowker, fourth edition, 1980.

50) "Warren Yates, organ -- on Edison." Database entry provided by Jerry Fabris, Curator of Sound Recordings, Edison National Historic Site.

51) "W. M Yates, Organist, Dies at 79." Verona-Cedar Grove Times, December 28, 1967.

52) Social Security Death Index Interactive Search. 11 Nov. 2013. http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3693/.

53) Wile, Ray. "Laterally Last." The E Discographer #1, May 2000. 29 Jan. 2002. http://www.hensteeth.com/e_discog/wile1.html

54) Wile.

55) Ernest L. Stevens. Interview. Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph: A Century in Retrospect. Ed. John Harvith and Susan Edwards Harvith. New York: Greenwood Pr., 1987. 25.

56) "Stevens, Ernest L." (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Douglas Tarr.

57) Ernest L. Stevens. Interview. Edison, Musicians, and the Phonograph: A Century in Retrospect. Ed. John Harvith and Susan Edwards Harvith. New York: Greenwood Pr., 1987. 34.

58) Frow, 77-78.


APPENDIX - Edison Diamond Disc Organ Records

Recordings in Italics were not issued.  Matrix #s - assigned at time of recording.   Disc #s - assigned when sides were coupled.
Blue - dubbed blue amberol cylinder.  Release - official release date.   Suppl. - date of the Edison record supplement in which the recording was first listed.

Gibson , Archer (on the Organ at the Charles M. Schwab mansion, Riverside Drive, NYC).
One recording session.
These are the only Edison recordings ever made by Archer Gibson, none were released.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer) Blue Release Suppl.
8/31/21 8198
The Rosary (Ethelbert W. Nevin / Robert C. Rogers)


8/31/21 8199
Traumerei (Robert Schumann, op.15)


8/31/21 8200
Prelude #28


8/31/21 8201
Mighty lak' a Rose (Ethelbert W. Nevin / Frank L. Stanton)




Kinsley, Frederick on the Midmer-Losh Pipe Organ (unless otherwise indicated).
Twenty-six recording sessions.
Bold dates indicate start of new recording session.
1924 recording session was at Hippodrome Theatre (3/7 Midmer-Losh).
1925 recording sessions were done on organs set up in the Midmer-Losh factory.
Starting in December 1926 recording sessions were done on the 3/7 Midmer-Losh organ in the Columbia St. Edison Studios, West Orange, NJ.
27 Edison Diamond Disc records (54 sides) were issued.
21 numbers out of 75 recorded by Kinsley were not issued.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

6/14/24 9565 80800-R Prelude in C Sharp Minor, Op. 3 (Sergei Rachmaninoff)

7/15/24

Aug. 1924

6/14/24 9566 80800-L Liebestraum (Dream of Love) (Franz Liszt)

7/15/24

Aug. 1924

6/14/24 9567 80799-R The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise (Ernest Seitz)

4934

8/22/24

Oct. 1924

6/14/24 9568 80799-L Poor Butterfly (Raymond Hubbell)

8/22/24

Oct. 1924

1/6-1/7/25 9928 O Promise Me (Reginald de Koven / Harry B. Smith)
1/6-1/7/25 9929 Love Sends a Little Gift of Roses (John Openshaw / Leslie Cooke)
1/6-1/7/25 9930 Serenade (Franz Schubert, D.957)
1/6-1/7/25 9931 80827-R Abide With Me (Wm H. Monk)

5037

3/18/25

May 1925

1/6-1/7/25 9932 80827-L Lead Kindly Light (John B. Dykes)

3/18/25

May 1925

1/6-1/7/25 9933 The Lost Chord (Arthur Sullivan / Adelaide A. Proctor)
6/20/25 10442 80841-R Indian Love Call From "Rose Marie" (Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein, 2nd & Rudulf Friml)

7/7/25

Aug. 1925

6/20/25 10443 80851-L War March Of The Priests--Athalie (Mendelssohn)

10/20/25

Nov. 1925

6/20/25 10444 80841-L A Waltz In The Moonlight And You (Mitchell Parish & Alfred Solman)

5030

7/7/25

Aug. 1925

6/22/25 10447 80844-R In Shadowland (Sam M. Lewis, Joe Young, Ruth Brooks & Fred E. Ahlert)

8/14/25

Sept. 1925

6/22/25 10448 80854-R The Palms (J. Faure)

10/26/25

Dec. 1925

6/22/25 10449 80860-R On The Road To Mandalay (Oley Speaks)

1/4/26

Feb. 1926

6/22/25 10450 Old Pal (Egbert A. van Alstyne / Gus Kahn)
6/23/25 10453 80844-L The Melody That Made You Mine (Cliff Friend & W. C. Polla)

5054

8/14/25

Sept. 1925

6/23/25 10454 Lohengrin: Bridal Chorus (Richard Wagner)
6/23/25 10455 Humoresque (Antonín Dvořák, op.101,7)
6/23/25 10456 Silver Threads Among the Gold (Hart P. Danks / Ebenezer E. Rexford)
6/24/25 10461 80851-R Pomp And Circumstance March (Edward Elgar)

10/20/25

Nov. 1925

6/24/25 10462 80857-R Minuet In G (Beethoven)

12/7/25

Jan. 1926

6/24/25 10463 Wedding March from Midsummer Night's Dream (Felix Mendelssohn)
6/24/25 10464 80857-L Souvenir (Franz Drdla)

12/7/25

Jan. 1926

6/25/25 10467 The Lost Chord (with Charles Hart, Tenor) (Arthur Sullivan / Adelaide A. Proctor)
6/25/25 10468 51879-R Nearer My God To Thee (Lowell Mason)

12/1/26

Jan. 1927

6/25/25 10469 Cujus animan - Stabat Mater (with Charles Hart, Tenor) (Gioacchino Rossini)
6/25/25 10470 80849-R I'm Falling In Love With Someone (Victor Herbert)

9/14/25

Oct. 1925

6/27/25 10473 Adoration Waltz (Magine, Otis, Romano)
6/27/25 10474 80854-L Silent Night (Franz Gruber)

5063

10/26/25

Dec. 1925

6/27/25 10475 80849-L A Kiss In The Dark (B. G. De Sylva & Victor Herbert)

9/14/25

Oct. 1925

6/27/25 10476 80860-L A Song Of India (Chanson Indoue) (N. Rimsky-Korsakow)

1/4/26

Feb. 1926

6/27/25 10477 51879-L One Sweetly Solemn Thought (R. S. Ambrose)

12/1/26

Jan. 1927

12/6/26 11352 51915-R Moonlight on the Ganges (Chester Wallace & Sherman Myers) remade on 1/5/27

1/14/27

Feb. 1927

12/6/26 11353 51915-L Hello Bluebird (Cliff Friend) remade on 1/5/27

1/14/27

Feb. 1927

1/5/27 11415 51918-R Roses For Remembrance (Gus Kahn and Loyal Curtis)

1/19/27

Feb. 1927

1/5/27 11416 51918-L My Sweetheart Waltz (Harry Pease, Harold Veo & Ed. G. Nelson)

1/19/27

Feb. 1927

1/12/27 11427 51924-R The Little White House (At the End of Honeymoon Lane) (Eddie Dowling & James F. Hanley)

1/24/27

Mar. 1927

1/12/27 11428 51924-L Roses Remind Me Of You (Benny Davis, Al Sherman & Joe Burke)

1/24/27

Mar. 1927

1/12/27 11429 51957-L Jesus Christ Is Risen To-Day (Easter Hymn) (Worgan)

3/4/27

Apr. 1927

1/12/27 11430 51957-R In The Cross of Christ I Glory -- The Strife Is O'er (Easter Hymn)

3/4/27

Apr. 1927

1/19/27 11449 52081-L Rock Of Ages (Dr. Thos.Hastings); I Surrender All (W. S. Weeden)

8/31/27

Oct. 1927

1/19/27 11450 52081-R What Shall The Harvest Be? (Miss Emily S. Oakey & P. P. Bliss)

8/31/27

Oct. 1927

1/19/27 11451 52030-R Face To Face (Herbert Johnson)

6/25/27

Aug. 1927

1/19/27 11452 52030-L Let The Lower Lights Be Burning (P. P. Bliss); God Be With You! (W. G. Tomer)

6/25/27

Aug. 1927

1/26/27 11470 51936-R One Alone from "The Desert Song" (Otto Harbach-Oscar Hammerstein 2nd-Sigmund Romberg)

2/14/27

Mar. 1927

1/26/27 11471 51937-R How I Love You I'm Tellin' The Birds - Tellin' The Bees (Lew Brown & Cliff Friend)

2/21/27

Apr. 1927

1/26/27 11472 51936-L Mary Lou (Abe Lyman-George Waggner-J. Russel Robinson)

5316

2/14/27

Mar. 1927

1/26/27 11473 51937-L Put Your Arms Where They Belong (For They Belong To Me) (Lou Davis-Henry Santly-Herman Ackman)

2/21/27

Apr. 1927

2/6/27 11504 Yankee Rose (2/7 Wurlitzer Organ, Sanford Theatre, Maplewood, NJ)
2/6/27 11505 High, High Up In The Hills (2/7 Wurlitzer Organ, Sanford Theatre, Maplewood, NJ)
2/14/27 11518 51969-R Chérie, I Love You (Chérie, Je T'Aime) (Lillian Rosedale Goodman) (Walter Scanlan, Tenor)

4/11/27

May 1927

2/14/27 11519 51969-L Song of Songs (Clarence Lucas-de Moya) (Walter Scanlan, Tenor)

4/11/27

May 1927

2/14/27 11520 51955-R Take In The Sun, Hang Out The Moon (Sam Lewis-Joe Young-Harry Woods) (with Arthur Fields, Baritone)

3/7/27

Apr. 1927

2/14/27 11521 51955-L Falling In Love With You (Benny Davis and Joseph Meyer) (with Arthur Fields, Baritone)

3/7/27

Apr. 1927

3/3/27 11548 51965-R In A Little Spanish Town ('Twas on a Night Like This) (Lewis-Young-Wayne)

3/21/27

May 1927

3/3/27 11549 51965-L My Daddy (Ted Strong)

3/21/27

May 1927

3/23/27 11598 51987-L Calling (Raymond Klages and Ernie Golden)

4/21/27

June 1927

3/23/27 11599 51987-R I'm Looking For A Girl Named Mary (Sam H. Stept)

4/21/27

June 1927

4/3/27 11624 51990-R Muddy Water (Trent-De Rose-Richman) (2/7 Wurlitzer Organ, Sanford Theatre)

5346

4/15/27

May 1927

4/3/27 11625 51990-L The Winding Trail (Hayden-Howard) (2/7 Wurlitzer Organ, Sanford Theatre)

4/15/27

May 1927

6/20/27 11751 52054-L When Day Is Done (B. G. De Sylva & Dr. Robert Katscher)

7/14/27

Aug. 1927

6/20/27 11752 52054-R Just An Ivy Covered Shack (Morey Davidson & Carl Rupp)

7/14/27

Aug. 1927

7/20/27 11805 Mother - from "My Maryland"

5409?

7/20/27 11806 Silver Moon Waltz (Sigmund Romberg / Donnelly)
10/10/27 11943 52117-L C'Est Vous (It's You) (Ab. Green-Abner Silver-Harry Richman) (electrically recorded)

10/19/27

Nov. 1927

10/10/27 11944 52117-R Me And My Shadow (Al Jolson-Billy Rose-Dave Dryer) (electrically recorded)

10/19/27

Nov. 1927

11/2/27 18004 An Old Guitar and An Old Refrain (electrically recorded)
11/2/27 18005 Song of the Wanderer (Neil Moret) (with xylophone, saxophone and guitar) (electrically recorded)
12/17/27 18112 My Blue Heaven (George Whiting, Walter Donaldson) (remade on 12/23/27, rejected) (electrically recorded) (at Hippodrome)
12/23/27 18133 Are You Lonesome Tonight (Handman) (electrically recorded) (at Hippodrome)
1/27/28 18181 Among My Souvenirs (Horatio Nicholls / Leslie) (electrically recorded)
3/29/28 18347 52303-L Little Log Cabin Of Dreams (James F. Hanley & Eddie Dowling) (electrically recorded)

6/19/28

July 1928

3/29/28 18348 52303-R Was It A Dream? (Sam Coslow-Larry Spier-Addy Britt) (electrically recorded)

6/19/28

July 1928



Maitland , Rollo on the Midmer-Losh Pipe Organ.
Three recording sessions.
3/7 Midmer-Losh organ installed in the Columbia St. Edison Studios, West Orange, NJ.
Bold dates indicate start of new recording session.
3 Edison Diamond Disc records (6 sides) were issued.
2 numbers out of 8 recorded by Maitland were not issued.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

4/18/27 11655 52006-R Down The Lane (With You Again) (Raymond Klages & Larry Spier)

5/16/27

June 1927

4/18/27 11656 52006-L At Sundown (When Love Is Calling Me Home) (Walter Donaldson)

5/16/27

June 1927

4/23/28 18431 52291-R Angel's Serenade (Gaetano Braga) (electrically recorded)

5/16/28

June 1928

4/23/28 18432 52291-L Largo from "New World" Symphony (Anton Dvořák) (electrically recorded)

5/16/28

June 1928

5/26/28 18535 52338-L Ave Maria (Franz Schubert) (electrically recorded)

7/20/28

Sept. 1928

5/26/28 18536 Serenade (Moszkowski) (electrically recorded)
5/26/28 18537 52338-R Because (Guy D'Hardelot) (electrically recorded)

7/20/28

Sept. 1928

5/26/28 18538 Salut d'Amour (Elgar, op.12) (electrically recorded)


Sharpe-Minor , C. on the Wurlitzer Organ.
One recording session.
2/7 Wurlitzer Organ, Sanford Theatre, Maplewood, NJ.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

4/24/27 11663 52064-R Hold Me And Fold Me Close To Your Heart (Billy Heagney)

7/27/27

Sept. 1927

4/24/27 11664 52064-L The Officer Of The Day March (R. B. Hall)

7/27/27

Sept. 1927



Simon , Walter Cleveland on the Wurlitzer Organ
One recording session.
Wurlitzer organ installed in the Maplewood Theatre, Maplewood, NJ.
These are the only Edison recordings made by Walter Simon, none were released.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

4/29/28 18456 Together - Waltz (de Sylva, Brown, Henderson)

4/29/28 18457 There Must Be A Silver Lining (That's Shining for Me - Foxtrot) (Walter Donaldson & Morse) (electrically recorded)

4/29/28 18458 The Stars and Stripes Forever - March (John Philip Sousa) (electrically recorded)



Kamern , Henrietta on the Moller Organ at Loew's Rio Theatre.
Seven recording sessions.
3/32 M.P. Möller Deluxe Organ, Loew's Rio Theatre, NYC.
Bold dates indicated start of new recording session.
3 Edison Diamond Disc records (6 sides) were issued.
3 sides out of 9 recorded by Kamern were not issued.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

7/19/28 18621 52373-R Laugh, Clown, Laugh (Lewis-Young-Ted Fiorito) (electrically recorded)

8/25/28

Oct. 1928

7/25/28 18635 52373-L Just Like A Melody Out Of The Sky (Walter Donaldson) (electrically recorded)

8/25/28

Oct. 1928

8/1/28 18645 52376-R Girl Of My Dreams (Sunny Clapp) (with Theo Alban, Tenor) (electrically recorded)

5595

9/1/28

Oct. 1928

8/1/28 18646 52376-L Come Back Chiquita (L. Wolfe Gilbert-Mabel Wayne) (electrically recorded)

9/1/28

Oct. 1928

10/4/28 18780 52429-L My Angel (Angela Mia) (Erno Rapée-Lew Pollack) (electrically recorded)

10/20/28

Nov. 1928

10/4/28 18781 52429-R Jeannine I Dream Of Lilac Time (L. Wolfe Gilbert-Nathaniel Shilkret) (electrically recorded)

10/20/28

Nov. 1928

10/10/28 18797 Gypsy Love Song (Victor Herbert / Harry B. Smith) (electrically recorded)
10/19/28 18821 I'm Falling in Love With Someone (Victor Herbert) (electrically recorded)
12/5/28 18919 Sally of My Dreams (W. Kernell) (electrically recorded)


Gart , John on the 4/23 Robert-Morton "Wonder Morton", Loew's Valencia Theatre, NYC.
Two recording sessions.
Bold dates indicate start of new recording session.
N-818 & N-845 released only as Blue amberol cylinders dubbed from needle-cut masters, very rare
N-819 & N-844 released only as needle-cut (lateral) recordings, very rare.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

3/27/29 N-818 If I Had You (Shapiro, Campbell, Connolly) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)

5719

3/27/29 N-819 14008 Weary River - Theme Song of Photoplay "Weary River" (Clarke, Silvers) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)
4/9/29 N-844 14008 Coquette - Theme Song of Photoplay "Coquette" (Irving Berlin) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)
4/9/29 N-845 A Precious Little Thing Called Love (Davis, Coots) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)

5706





Kohlmann , Clarence on the Ocean Grove Auditorium Organ
One recording session.
Auditorium Organ at Ocean Grove, NJ.
These are the only Edison recordings made by Clarence Kohlman, none were released.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

9/10/29 N-1116 The Storm - Part 1 (Shaw-Kohlmann) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)

9/10/29 N-1117 The Storm - Part 2 (Shaw-Kohlmann) (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)
9/10/29 N-1118 When they ring the golden bells for you and me (de Marbelle) with Donald Chalmers, bass, and W.T. Paulson, traps
9/10/29 N-1119 Some day He'll make it plain - with Donald Chalmers, bass, and W.T. Paulson, traps


Yates , Warren on the Wurlitzer Organ, Fabian Theatre, Paterson, NJ.
Two recording sessions.
Bold dates indicate start of new recording session.
N-1163 & N-1172 were pressed only as needle-cut (lateral) recordings, apparently unreleased, exceedingly rare.

Date Recorded Matrix # Disc # Title, (Composer)

Blue

Release

Suppl.

9/26/29 N-1163 14078-R Pagan Love Song - Waltz from the Photoplay "The Pagan" (Arthur Freed & Nacio Herb Brown) Vocal Chorus by Jack Stillman (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)

10/3/29 N-1172 14078-L Ev'ry Day Away From You (Charles Tobias & Jay Mills) Vocal Chorus by Walter Scanlan (electrically recorded, needle-cut lateral)


Notes:
All recorded acoustically except as noted.

Information for this table was taken from the following sources:
"C. Sharpe Minor" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Douglas Tarr.
Ferrara, Dennis E. "The Complete Theatre Organ Recordings on Edison." Theatre Organ 35.4 (July-August 1993): 20-23.
"Frederick Kinsley" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
"Gart, John" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
"Gibson, Archer, organ solos" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
"Henrietta Kamern" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
Karlin, Fred J. Edison Diamond Discs 50001-52651, 1912-1929. Santa Monica, CA: Bona Fide Pub. Co., 1972.
"Rollo Maitland" (artist card). West Orange, NJ: Edison National Historic Site archives, photocopy courtesy Raymond R. Wile.
The Truesound Online Discography Project - Documenting the Acoustical Era (1888 - 1930) EDISON (Diamond Discs) (updated 10/2/2003) [zipped EXCEL spreadsheet] http://www.truesoundtransfers.de/disco.htm
"Warren Yates, organ -- on Edison." Database entry provided by Jerry Fabris, Curator of Sound Recordings, Edison National Historic Site.
Wile, Ray. "Laterally Last." The E Discographer #1, May 2000. 29 Jan. 2002. http://www.hensteeth.com/e_discog/wile1.html
Wile, Raymond R., comp. Edison Disc Recordings. Philadelphia: Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1978.
Wile, Raymond R. "Edison organ recordings." E-mail to the author along with handwritten notes. 23 Sept. 1999.

Questions?  Comments?  Email Richard Densmore at rdensmore53@gmail.com.

© 2001 Association for Recorded Sound Collections

This article was originally written between October 1999 and February 2000.
Last updated 5/17/2017.

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